The symptoms of schizophrenia vary from one individual to another, but can be classified into two main categories:[1]

Positive symptoms

Positive symptoms are characterised by changes in behaviour or thoughts, for example:
  • Hearing, seeing or feeling something that is not there. Hallucinations can affect any of the five senses: sound, sight, touch, taste and smell. Hearing voices is the most common hallucination experienced with schizophrenia.
  • Beliefs which are not likely to change when presented with conflicting evidence, and which can lead to difficulty in separating real from unreal experiences.
Disorganised thinking
  • Making random associations due to a difficulty in organising thoughts.
  • Increased tension and becoming more easily irritable.

Negative symptoms

Negative symptoms are characterised by a loss of functioning you would usually expect to see in a fully healthy person, for example:
Lack of drive or initiative
  • Spending a lot of time in bed without motivation to do anything. Personal appearance and the inclination to take care of oneself may be affected.
Social withdrawal / depression
  • Spending a lot of time alone with no desire to see other people.
  • Feelings of emptiness and a lack of drive to follow through on plans.
Lack of emotional response
  • Lacking normal signs of emotion. Not feeling happy or sad. Reduced facial expressions.
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If you think that you are experiencing any symptoms of schizophrenia, you should speak to your doctor as early as possible. The sooner you get their help, the sooner they can help you start feeling better.

Most people with schizophrenia experience several psychotic episodes (times when positive symptoms are having a more pronounced impact) during their lifetime.[2][3] During these times you may find many areas of your life are affected, including your relationships, work or education, family life and your ability to communicate.[1]

Living with schizophrenia

Due to the chronic and recurring nature of schizophrenia symptoms, you may require long-term treatment to help you manage the condition. An important part of this is normally the use of medication.45 This approach to treatment is typical for many chronic conditions, such as diabetes and asthma, where long-term and well-managed medication is required to keep the condition under control.


If your symptoms of schizophrenia worsen or return after a period when you were feeling better, this is known as a relapse. During a relapse, people often find that their symptoms are at a similar level to that experienced during the initial episode of schizophrenia.6 People who stop taking their medication are more likely to experience a relapse, often within a few weeks of the last dose.6

Each time a relapse occurs the disease can get worse, and the longer that they go untreated, the greater the chances of long-term consequences.[1] Because of this, it’s important to tell your doctor as soon as possible if you think you have relapsed. This will help minimise long-term consequences and help you to get back to your life sooner.

Relapses can usually be controlled with the reintroduction and successful management of medication.6